There are many beautiful places on the planet Earth. Among them there are those favored by tourists, captured in thousands of photographs and filmed on many films, described by famous travelers, inspired many authors to create the most famous works, places that received the name "tourist Mecc". They are mentioned in all the guidebooks, they are indicated on all tourist maps.
But in the world there are many other equally attractive and interesting places that you may not have heard of. And in general, how much do you know about Russia? Have you ever been to Russia? Did you travel in Russia?
In Russia there are many unique regions with an ancient history, famous for their sights and original traditions, unique ethnographic and folkloric programs with diverse landscapes, ecologically clean places of rest, cordiality and hospitality of the inhabitants.
Among them is the Rostov region, formerly part of the Don Army. Don Cossacks made a great contribution to the history of the Russian state, mastering vast steppe spaces, guarding the southern borders of the country, taking part in all military companies of Russia XVII-XX centuries, enriching the Russian culture with Cossack colors and traditions.
The names of the ancient princes Svyatoslav and Igor, Ermak and Stepan Razin, Pugachev and Bulavin, Peter the Great and Alexander the First, Alexander Suvorov and Matvey Platov, Boris Dumenko and Semyon Budyonny, Anton Chekhov and Faina Ranevskaya, Mikhail Sholokhov and Alexander Solzhenitsyn are associated with the Don land.
Fidelity to the motherland, Orthodox faith, skillful possession of arms, selfless courage, brotherly mutual assistance, dashing dzhigitovka, diligence, fervent songs and dances, hospitality and cordiality were the characteristic features of the Don Cossacks, who glorified the Don Army far beyond Russia. And the descendants of the Don Cossacks, who now live not only in Russia, but also on all continents, have preserved the best traditions of their ancestors and now multiply their glorious deeds.
And now in the territory of the Rostov region there are many monuments of material and spiritual culture that bear witness to the Cossack prowess and glory, the enormous contribution of the Don Cossacks to the economic cultural prosperity of the South of Russia.
Many sights of the Don region are well known not only in Russia, but also far beyond its borders:
- extensive collections of Scythian, Sarmatian and Alanian gold,
- the ruins of the northernmost Greek city of the Tanais Antiquity,
- The Genoese wall,
- Alekseevsky gate and the Powder cellar in Azov,
- old Cossack hens in the villages of Starocherkasskaya and Razdorskaya, the villages of Pukhlyakovskiy and Kanygin,
- Anninskaya fortress near the village of Starocherkasskaya,
- Customs outpost of the XVIII century in Aksai,
- Triumphal arches,
- Ataman Palace in Novocherkassk,
- the house of Anton Chekhov in Taganrog,
- a complex of structures of the Cathedral in the name of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary
- The building of the Academic Drama Theater. M. Gorky in the city of Rostov-on-Don,
- the house-estate of the Nobel Prize winner MA Sholokhov in the village of Veshenskaya.
Always attract the attention of guests and tourists are unique exhibits of the museums of the Rostov region, many of which have been exhibited repeatedly in the most famous museums in the world:
- skeletons of the trogonterian elephant and dinoterea,
- lit - a quiver for bow and arrow with scenes of life of Achilles,
- a silver gilt cup with bees,
- MI Platov's award-winning saber for the Persian campaign,
- Portrait of MK Efremova,
- Kichka - wedding headdress Cossacks-nakrasovki,
- the canvas of "Cleopatra" by the Dutch artist of the 17th-18th centuries, Jan de Bana,
- the saber of Alexander the First, granted to the Don Nicholas the First Army,
- a painting by K. E. Makovsky "Peasant lunch during harvest time"
- authentic banners of Cossack units and formations, manuscripts of AP Chekhov and MA Sholokhov ...
Today, the Rostov region has all the conditions for rest and reception of domestic and foreign tourists:
- various kinds of tourism - historical and cultural, congress, health, event, beach, sports, rural, cruise, fishing and hunting;
- numerous accommodation facilities, including congress hotels, sanatoria, and recreation centers located in all municipalities of the region;
- extensive transport infrastructure;
- large leisure and entertainment complexes;
- modern information and communication systems;
- Exclusive tourist programs and centuries-old traditions of hospitality.
The Don region is a land of picturesque nature, original culture and rich spiritual traditions. Due to its scientific and creative potential, it stands among the first among the regions of Russia.
The Rostov region is famous for a large number of historical and cultural monuments, as well as nature reserves, many of which have the status of nature monuments of federal and regional significance. You are waiting for 27 reserves and over 100 specially protected natural areas. The primeval Persian nature reserve steppe, forest tracts, birch forests, Mukhina Balka, unique Botanical Garden of Rostov-on-Don, in which 6,500 species of trees, bushes, grassy plants from all over the world are collected, offer your eyes an exquisite feast.
The atmosphere of the region is permeated with beauty, fantasy, art. In the Don museums unique collections of finds from gold of the Scythian-Sarmatian period are collected, an excellent ethnographic collection representing the diversity of national cultures of the Don region, objects of Cossack life, paintings of famous painters of the XVIII-XX centuries.
Art and nature form a single whole, giving rise to the warmest feelings and carrying away the worldly worries.
Oh, you're our father, Quiet Don!
Oh, what are you, quiet Don, mutnehonek flowing!
Oh, how do I, quiet Don, do not get a leak!
From the bottom of me, silent Don, the keys are being beaten.
Peel me, silent Don, white fish stirs.
Ancient Cossack song.
Don-father flows broadly and freely. Silent is named in the novel by Mikhail Aleksandrovich Sholokhov. Come to his right bank - how can not the soul sing?
And how is the famous Don steppe? It remained in its original form only in beams, gullies, on stony hillocks and ruts. Forests and virgin steppes are now rare, in scaffolding, non-forested areas and plowed fields prevail everywhere. The endless distance lay in all directions of the dim, hazy, flat horizon. There and here, in the distance, the silhouettes of steppe mounds loom. Silent witnesses of the past centuries, watchtowers and burial mounds, barely noticeable among the vast fields. If you climb one of these mounds near the village of Razdorskaya, the unobstructed breadth of Obdonia opens before your eyes. Floodplain forests. Cretaceous, rugged mounds with small trees of wild apple and pear trees, hawthorn bushes. Dead bald patches of sand. And the mighty river, with a blue blade, cuts through the aquamarine greenery of the floodplain. In the height, in the dazzling sunny blue, the kite rustles, vigilantly peering and noticing the smallest movements in its steppe patrimony.
Along the steppe rivers stretch villages, farms, villages, shrouded in greenery of gardens. And around the villages of the field. They are huge. It seems that they have no beginning, on the edge. Ripening wheat hanging heavy ears above the field path. To the far edge of the plain horizon, dark green waves of corn stalks flee, and their shaggy whitish sultans are poured by sea foam. Rustle leaves of high sunflower. Field fields are delineated in different directions by strict rows of forest field shelter belts, which have now become here as an integral part of the landscape, like the innumerable ancient cemeteries of nomads.
The Rostov region lies in the steppe zone, only the extreme southeast is a transitional region from the steppes to the semi-deserts. Forests and shrubs occupy only 5.6% of the land fund. Steppe open spaces, forest oases, floodplains of the Don River, the coast of the Azov Sea, is a haven for more than one hundred species of animals and valuable commercial fish species.
The nature of the region is preserved in the Rostov Reserve.
The main city of the Rostov region is the city of Rostov-on-Don. The year of its foundation with read 1749, when customs was laid near the mouth of the river Temernik. After 2 decades, a fortress, named Dmitry Rostovsky, grew here. Favorable geographical position of the city contributed to its dynamic development. A short time after the foundation, there were a town hall, moorings, a stock exchange with 52 shops and warehouses. After the construction of the Voronezh-Rostov and Vladikavkaz railroads, Rostov became the most important transport hub (Gate of the North Caucasus) and the largest port on the Azov Sea. Currently, water-river lines connect Rostov with 16 states of the Mediterranean, Black Sea, Baltic and Caspian basins. In the city of Rostov-on-Don operates an international airport. There is air communication with 115 cities and settlements of the country, as well as with 10 countries of the world. The wealth of the subsoil The rich natural resources also contributed to the emergence of a powerful economy on the Don. Since the last century, coal mining in the eastern part of the Donets Basin has been intensive, the reserves of deposits are estimated at many billions of tons, and more than 90% are anthracite deposits - the best coal in the world. Don is exceptionally rich in natural building materials - limestone, marls, chalk, sandstones, gypsum, quality clays, quartz sand, etc. This made it possible to create a powerful industry of building materials in the region. EconomicsDonetsk region is also the largest center of agricultural machinery construction.
About 50% of all Russian agricultural machinery production is produced in the region. The main producer is the Rostselmash joint-stock company. Its grain harvesters "Niva" and "Don 1500" will be seen not only in Russia, but also in the fields of the near and far abroad countries. Novelty "Don - 2600" has a capacity of 20 tons or more. Another interesting novelty is the energy device "Don-800", which can be operated all year round: from April to November - for fodder preparation and a dump of bread, and in winter, as a vehicle. The products of the joint stock company Krasny Kotelshchik are widely known in Russia, CIS countries and far abroad. It is invariably in demand, thanks to which the Taganrog boilers have a strong economy. Continuing the conversation about the industry of the Don region, we note that its potential is not lower than the potential of the Central European state. As jokes on the Don, we, like in Greece, have everything, even their own energy. The largest in the south of Russia Novocherkasskaya GRES and several thermal power stations are successfully operating.
The black metallurgy is represented by a powerful Taganrog metallurgical plant, which produces pipes for the oil and gas industry and the same plant produces, do not be surprised, beautiful crystal. The newest technologies are introduced at the Sulinsky Metallurgical Plant. The Belaya Kalitva Metallurgical Production Association is famous for its products. The city itself - White Kalitva - one of the most beautiful industrial cities on the river Northern Donets. The center of transport engineering is Novocherkassk, to be exact, Novocherkassk Electric Locomotive Plant. He is the main Russian manufacturer of electric locomotives. Now the production of direct current electric locomotives for passenger trains is being replaced in place of those that Czechoslovakia previously supplied. Helicopters are the main products of the former helicopter plant, and now the joint-stock company Rostvertol. MI-26 transport helicopters and combat helicopter MI-35 are in great demand on the world market. Seaplanes of the brand "5", produced in Taganrog, have proved to be good at extinguishing forest fires. A multifaceted agriculture ... in the Azov state farming is the largest on the planet a herd of the noble European deer ... "Put a stick in the ground - a tree will grow", - they say about the quality world famous Don chernozems, whose beds reach two or more meters.
The fertility of lands combined with the favorable climate and hard-working character of the local population gives impressive results: 7% of the total Russian grain, every third ton of sunflower, and hundreds of thousands of tons of meat and dairy and fruit and vegetable products are produced on the Don. One of the most powerful not only in Russia, but also in Europe - the Millerovo oil extraction plant processes 500 tons of oilseeds every hour - "flowing black fragrant gold flows" every hour. Not all Don lands are of equal quality. The picture changed with the arrival of meliorators in the steppes of the steppes. Now the lands of Bagaevsky and Semikarakorsky regions are rightfully called "the all-Russian vegetable garden". Eco-friendly vegetables and fruits in fresh and canned form come from here on the table to Muscovites and Petersburgers, machine builders of the Urals and oilmen of Tyumen. Land reclamation brought to life a completely new branch of agriculture for the Don. Today, through the Rostov region, the Northern boundary of the world rice-growing is passing - the result is stunning - the gross harvest of the crop reached 97,000 tons. And one more amazing facet of the rural Don can not be denied. Despite the intensive plowing of zemel, here are preserved many corners of the pristine nature, analogues which in the world simply do not exist. So, in the Azov state economy, the biggest herd of the noble European deer is found on the planet, numbering more than 800 cows.Viniculture By the way, the appearance of viticulture on the Don is associated with the name of the reform king. Peter the Great ordered the Cossacks to grow a vine and press the wine with a special decree.
A century later another great Russian, a brilliant poet and a fine connoisseur of wines wrote: Prepare the same for the coveted Don riders. The ebullient sparkling Vineyards of yours. Don winemakers and winemakers follow the precept of Alexander Pushkin. And if in recent decades the emphasis has been on spreading a variety such as Riesling, northern Saperavi, etc., now attention is paid to the revival of primordially Don, Tsimlyansk varieties. The cement business ... the Don and Budyon breeds were created in the Rostov region. As historical curiosity is perceived today, the fact , that 300 years ago the tsarist decrees strictly forbade the Cossacks to engage in farming: "the plow should not be distracted from military service". However, the new does not interfere with the development of the primordially Cossack industries, which the Don is famous for. Since time immemorial, horse breeding has been encouraged. The mounted Cossack regiments fought against the Mongol-Tatars in the Kulikovo battle, thwarted Napoleon, participated in the decisive battles of the Second World War.
Today, horse breeding is not only a tribute to traditions, but also an important item of export earnings of such farms as the stud farms named after Kirov of the Tselinsky district, the Kachalnitsky district, etc. Young breeders and coaches took the baton of the old generations of horse breeders who created remarkable breeds of riding horses - Don and Budionov. Thoroughbred and half-blooded horses repeatedly won awards of the highest standard at the Olympic Games and world championships. A look at the forces of future champions is the season of horse racing traditionally opened at the Rostov republican racecourse in early May. Don fishing From time immemorial known on the Don and the Sea of Azov and fishing. Don fishing opportunities are largely inaccessible in other regions of Russia, as more than 90 species of fish live in open water such as sturgeon, catfish, bream, pike perch, ram, fish, pike, silver carp, carp, pike, perch and the famous Don herring. The nearest shade is located right in the city limits of Rostov. In the midst of the way through the eyes of numerous spectators, fishermen bring to the shore a network full of "living silver". And there was a case when near a city beach we caught a beluga several centners in weight.
And just a few hours' drive, on the banks of Manych you will enter the world of mysterious melons, where pudate carp is soundly tinkling along the water, and in the sky black-black from avian flocks. In Rostov and Kagalnik there are specialized plants for caviar production and artificial reproduction juveniles of valuable commercial fish. Only thanks to them the famous red fish did not get into the Red Book. They turned back to the Rostov bazaars and crabs, which Peter Peter I preferred to foreign delicacies. Education In 1915, the University of Warsaw, with all its scientific and teaching staff, was transferred to Rostov-on-Don. Today Rostov State University (RSU) is one of the largest and most prestigious universities in the country.
On its basis, the North Caucasus Scientific Center of Higher Education and the personnel center of the Russian Academy of Public Service under the President of the Russian Federation have been established. In total there are more than 15 higher education institutions, about 100 design, research and development institutes, bureaus, laboratories, many of which are of national importance. What to visit? The famous tourist centers of the Don region are the cities of Rostov-on-Don, Novocherkassk, Azov, Taganrog; and Aksay, Azov, Neklinovsky, Ust-Donetsk, Belokalitvinsky, Tsimlyansky, Sholokhovsky districts. There are 4 theaters in Rostov-on-Don - the Academic Drama Theater named after. M. Gorky, Theater for Young People, Theater of Musical Comedy and Puppet Theater. In the Rostov region there are 33 state and more than 250 museums working on a volunteer basis. The historical and architectural monuments of the region are of great interest. Attention is drawn to the Rostov Cathedral of the Nativity of the Holy Virgin, built on the model project of K. Ton. In Taganrog, in the homeland of Anton Chekhov, on the initiative of local authorities, in the 80s a historical and architectural museum-reserve was opened. Now they include the restored "Gymnasium" (literary museum), "Chekhov's Bench", the house where the writer was born, the museum of town-planning and history of Taganrog, the Alferaki Palace (museum of local lore). And in Novocherkassk City Council all the houses built before 1917, declared monuments of history. Among them is the Museum of the History of the Don Cossacks. The exposition of the museum attracts not only local residents, but also a lot of international tourist groups. A great pleasure can be obtained if you go to the north of the Rostov region, visiting the village of Vyoshenskaya, where it is located The well-known museum-reserve Vyoshenskaya - the native land of MA Sholokhov. The motto of interest to the Donskoe antiquity is connected with the beginning of the revival of the Cossacks. Cossacks - freedom-loving and prosperous people, from ancient times lived on the Don lands and were the permanent guardians of Russia's southern borders from the raids of nomadic tribes inhabiting the steppes of the North Caucasus and Kalmykia. But the relationship between the Cossacks and Moscow was not easy, not always the atamans and the Russian sovereigns were allies. And only gradually the Don Army was drawn into the strategic interests of the Russian State. The Russian tsars "tamed" the Cossacks with a whip and a carrot. But the rebellious Don people often "shook" Moscow. The uprisings of Stepan Razin, Kondraty Bulavin, Emelian Pugachov left bloody traces in Russian history.
But in 1721 Peter I finally subordinated the Don Military to Russian laws. The Collegium of Foreign Affairs in St. Petersburg transferred relations with Don to the Military Collegium. It became forbidden to collect the troops. The army atamans were ordered to be called "orderly" atamans. From now on they did not get elected, but were appointed by the emperor. And with the establishment of Soviet power in the Don in 1920, the Cossack movement vanished. Civil war, repression of the 20 - 30-ies scattered and destroyed most of the Cossacks. In pursuance of the decree on the politicization, it seemed that everything was done to prevent the Cossacks from reviving as a political force. But the roots of the people, nourished by the spirit and strength of their native land, were preserved and gave new shoots. In November 1990, the Don Cossacks gathered for their first congress, where the triune task of reviving the Cossacks was formed: Cossack self-government, solving the question of land, creating the Cossack Guard. Ataman was elected Mikhail Mikhailovich Sholokhov, the son of a great writer, and himself MA Sholokhov during his lifetime became the initiator of education in the village Starocherkasskaya (the former capital of the Don Army) Starocherkassk historical and architectural museum-reserve. Every year folklore festivals are held on its territory. That's really where you can enjoy the Cossack color and the products of folk craft, rooted in the XV - XVI centuries. here you can observe even the art of weaving wattle. And at the organized exhibitions - sales to purchase products of ceramist masters from the Rostov Applied Arts Complex, as well as souvenirs from the Earthenware workshop from Semikarakorsk - known in many corners of the world. Truly, the Don region, its nature and people are also rich!